Neurons are the structural and functional unit of nervous system. It is developed from ectoderm of neural plate. It is made up of cell body and neural process called neurites. Cell body consists of nucleus, cyton and dendrites. The neurites consist of Schwann cell, nodes of Ranvier, Axon process and terminal axon.
It does not have centrosomes in their cytoplasm that’s why they do not divide and remains in interphase throughout their life.
The cytoplasm of cyton is found in inside cell body and also dendrites but not in axon. The cytoplasm of cyton contains nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi bodies, rough endoplasmic reticulum etc.
Nissl’s granules are site for protein synthesis. It is composed of irregular ribosomes units and rough endoplasmic reticulum.
Dendrites may be one to many but axon is single always. The gap between two Schwan’s cell or myelin sheath is called nodes od Ranvier.
The end dendrites part have synaptic knob which have synaptic vesicles containing chemical, neurotransmitter.