Branches (Sub-Disciplines) of Botany

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  • Post last modified:December 26, 2023
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  • Post category:Botany

In the earlier days, botany was not broadly divided and all sub-disciplines (branches) were studies under same course. As the division of botany started, it became easier for students to choose as per their interest. The division of botany has many advantages such as:

  • It specialized student in one discipline of botany.
  • It gives chance to choose the topics as per their interest.
  • It provides specialized manpower for nation and industries.
  • It provides opportunity for deeper studies and discovery.
branches of botany

Subdisciplines of botany includes both natural and applied fields. Natural field includes earlier practice of study such as anatomy, morphology, cytology, genetics, taxonomy, ecology etc. while applied field include modern disciplines such as agriculture, forestry, horticulture etc. Applied field studies plant life scientifically focusing on producing manpower to tackle with modern problems, productions along with economic value.

Natural Sub-Disciplines of Botany


Bacteriology is the branch of science which deals with the study of bacteria. A scientist who studies bacteria is called as Bacteriologist. Bacteriologist deals with the study of bacteria including their nature, habitat, structure, pathogenic characters, disease it causes and its diagnosis.


Cytology is the study of cell division in living beings. It is concern with both plant and animal cell division.


The branch of science which study with the division of nucleus during cell division is called karyology.


Branch which deals with the determination of age of trees by counting the annual growth rings is dendrochronology.


It deals with the study of climates of past and present by studying the nature and characteristic of annual rings present in plants.


The branch of biology which deals with the study of genes, heredity, regulation and expression of genes in organisms is called as genetics. Genetics is studied in both zoology and botany. In botany, genetics mainly deals with plant genes, heredity and its expression in plants.


Anatomy is the study of internal structure of plants like roots, stem, leaves, flower etc. It is derived from Greek word which means, Ana = asunder and tamnein = to cut. In Anatomy plants parts are dissected and examine under microscope to study internal structure, functions, roles etc.

Plant Physiology

Plant physiology is the study of functional characteristic of cells. Stephan Halls is regarded as father of plant physiology. Plant physiology deals with osmosis, diffusion, absorption, transpiration, ascent of sap, photosynthesis, respiration, seed germination, vernalization and other processes including plant water relationship.


Branch of science that studies bryophytes are called as bryology. Bryologist are the person studying and performing research activities on bryophytes. Hertwig is considered as father of bryology. Bryophytes are first land inhibiting plants which are studied to find the primitive nature of plants, evolutionary trends, their economic value etc.


Lichenology deals with the study of lichens. The term lichen was first used by Theophrastus. Lichens are dual organism made up of algae and fungi. They are both symbiotically associated with each other.  Lichens are the first species to grow and colonize on primitive earth surfaces like rocks and barren fields. It’s studies and research has benefited human with production of dyes, perfumes, antibiotics, medicines, bio-indicators etc.


Pteridology is the study of pteridophytes (Azolla, Dryopteris, Selaginella, Salvinia). Pteridophytes are the first vascular plant and also called as botanical snake.


The study of algae is called as phycology. It is also called as algology. F.E. Fritsch is the father of phycology. Algae are mainly found in oceans and few in fresh water. It is also called as children of sea.


The study of fungi is called as mycology. It studies the pathogenic nature, characteristic and economic value of fungi.


Taxonomy is the branch of biology that deals with the identification, classification and nomenclature of organism. Term taxonomy was coined by A.P de Candolle.

Plant Systematics

It deals with the diversity of organisms by comparing organism at each and every level of classification.


Plant morphology is the study of physical and external appearance of plants.


Palynology is the study of pollen grains, spores and microscopic planktons in both living and fossils forms.


It is the branch of botany that deals with the scientific study of ancient plants which are preserved in fossils. It helps in unfolding the history of ancient plant as well as ancient primitive earth.


It is the branch of science which deals with the study of living organism in relation to their environment. Term ecology is derived from Greek work “oikologies” and was coined by Ernest Haeckel.


Ecology is further sub-divided into:


It is the branch of ecology which study the relationship between population and their environment.


It is the branch of ecology which deals with the relationship between different species and their environment.


It is the study of genetic composition and changes in relation to origin of ecads, ecotypes, speciation and ecological adaptation.


It deals with the relationship of organism with their environment in past with the help of fossils.

Applied ecology

Applied ecology is the specialized and modern field of ecology that deals with the conservation and economic utilization of organism. Applied ecology includes agriculture, animal husbandry, silviculture etc.


It is the branch of botany that deals with the study of grasses.


It is the branch of botany that deals with the study of orchids.

Read Also: Sub-disciplines of zoology

Applied Sub Disciplines of Botany


It is the branch of biology that deals with the utilization of biological organism or its systems or parts for developing different products. Brewing and baking breads involves biotechnological process which are being used from several years. There are so many applications of biotechnology in modern days like producing antibiotics, medicines, vaccines etc.


Branch of applied botany which deals with the study of cultivation of agricultural crops, managements of livestock by improving traditional methods and applying modern methods for maximizing yields.


It is the applied branch of science or botany which deals with the effective planting, managing and caring of forest to benefits both human and environment.


It deals with the study of agricultural plant along with the soil in which it grows. It’s main prospective is to improve soil condition for maximizing yield of crops along with maintaining natural balance.


The branch of botany that deals with the study of plants in outer space is called astrobotany.


Ethnobotany is the study of traditional plants along with their practical uses by human beings for producing food, ingredients, clothes and medicines.



Branch of plant science which deals with the cultivation of plants in controlled conditions and gardens for foods, medicines and ornaments.

Marine Botany

It deals with study of plants growing in oceans.


pomology-branches of botany

Branch of science that deals with the study of fruits is called pomology.

Plant Pathology

Branch of applied biology that deals with the study of plant diseases, its causes, precaution and prevention is called plant pathology.

Degrees Related to Botany


Diploma course is generally 3 years (but may varies as per university). Student who has completed their 10th class are eligible to enroll in diploma courses.Some popular diploma course includes Diploma in agriculture, Diploma in forestry, Diploma in horticulture etc.

Under Graduate Degree (Bachelor)

Student who has completed 12th in science stream are eligible to enroll in different sub discipline of botany as Bachelor degree. Diploma holder students are also eligible to enroll in bachelor degree program. You can check the criteria and eligibility in the respective university in which you want to study.

Bachelor degrees offered by different university in plant science are BSc. Botany, BSc. Agriculture, BSc. Forestry, BSc. biotechnology, BSc. Biochemistry, BSc. Horticulture, BSc.  Ecology, BSc Genetics, BSc. Marine Biology, BSc. Plant physiology, BSc. Plant Pathology etc.

Post Graduate Degree (Master)

Students who have completed their bachelor degrees are allowed to enroll in Master degree programs. It is generally 2-year course.

Master degrees offered by different university are MSc. Botany, MSc. Agriculture, MSc. Forestry, MSc. biotechnology, MSc. Biochemistry, MSc. Horticulture, MSc.  Ecology, MSc. Genetics, MSc. Marine Biology, MSc. Plant physiology, MSc. Plant Pathology, MSc Applied Botany etc.